Disaster Management Notes for upsc cse

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HAZARDS AND DISASTERS


WHAT IS A HAZARD? 


  • Any phenomenon that has the potential to cause disruption or damage to people and their environment 
  • When hazard involves elements of risks, vulnerabilities, and capacities, they can turn into disasters.

Disaster Management Notes for upsc



Disaster Management Notes for upsc

WHAT IS A DISASTER? 


  • Disaster is a sudden, calamitous event bringing great damage, loss, and destruction and the devastation to life and property.
  • It refers to a catastrophe, mishap, calamity, or grave occurrence from natural or man-made causes, which is beyond the coping capacity of the affected community.

SO HOW DOES A DISASTER DIFFER FROM A HAZARD? 

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  • A disaster takes place when a community is affected by a hazard. Disaster is basically the consequence of hazard. 
  • A hazardous geophysical event becomes a disaster only when there is interaction with humans. If there is no interaction there would not be any disaster. For example, a volcanic eruption in a remote unpopulated area or a landslide in an unsettled land. 
  • A hazard is a perceived event that threatens both life and property. A disaster is a realization of this hazard. 
  • Hazards may be inevitable but disasters can be prevented.

CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDS:


  1.  Natural hazards are naturally-occurring physical phenomena caused either by rapid or slow onset events having atmospheric, geologic, and hydrologic origins on solar, global, regional, national, and local scales. Example: cyclone, tsunami, etc. 
  2. Quasi-natural hazards: arise through the interaction of natural processes and human activities. Example: smog, desertification, etc. 
  3. Man-made hazards: Hazards arising directly from human activities. Example: accidental release of radiation from nuclear installations.
Disaster Management Notes for upsc


GENERAL EFFECTS OF A DISASTER 

1. Loss of life 
2. Injury 
3. Damage to and destruction of property 
4. Damage to and destruction of production 
5. Disruption of lifestyle 
6. Loss of livelihood 
7. Disruption of essential services 
8. Damage to national infrastructure 
9. Disruption to governmental systems 
10. National economic loss 
11. Sociological and Psychological after effect 
12. Environmental Disruption

DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN INDIA 

WHAT IS DISASTER MANAGEMENT?

Disaster management is the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response, and recovery to lessen the impact of the disaster.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN INDIA

Disaster Management Act, 2005, defines “disaster management” as a continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating, and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for: 

1. Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster; 
2. Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences 
3. Capacity-building; 
4. Preparedness to deal with any disaster; 
5. Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster; 
6. Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster; evacuation, rescue, and relief; 
7. Rehabilitation and reconstruction

PARADIGM SHIFT IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT 


Disaster Management Notes for upsc



  • There was a paradigm shift from the erstwhile relief centric response to proactive prevention, mitigation and preparedness-driven approach. 
  • The new approach is obtained from the conviction that development cannot be sustainable unless disaster mitigation is built into the development process. 
  • This paradigm shift underpins that disasters can be managed through adequate planning and preparedness for response 
  • The new approach also originates from the belief that investments in mitigation are much more cost-effective than expenditure on relief and rehabilitation.

EVOLUTION OF THE RESPONSIVE AND PREPAREDNESS APPROACH TO DISASTER MANAGEMENT  

  • The repeated occurrences of disasters compelled the Government of India to take cognizance of the objectives of International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (1990-2000), Yokohama Strategy for Safer World (1994), and the Plan of action for a Safer World (Istanbul, 1996). 
  • Consequently, the High Power Committee on Disaster Management (HPC) was set up in 1999 to recommend strategies for Disaster Management Plans. 
  • Until 2001, the responsibility of Disaster Management was with the Agriculture Ministry. Following a recommendation of the HPC, it was transferred to the Ministry of Home Affairs in 2002. 
  • The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was established in 2005. 
  • Disaster Management Act was passed in 2005

HOW HAS BEEN THIS CHANGED APPROACH PUT INTO EFFECT? 

Disaster Management Notes for upsc


  1. Institutional changes 
  2. Proclaiming policy 
  3. Legal framework 
  4. Mainstreaming mitigation into the Developmental process 
  5. Funding 
  6. Specific Schemes addressing mitigation 
  7. Preparedness measures
  8. Capacity Building
  9. Human Resource Development 
  10. Community participation
THE DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE 

The basic disaster management cycle consists of 6 main activities:

KEY PHASES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE: 

  • Pre-Disaster Phase: Before a disaster to reduce the potential for human, material or environmental losses caused by hazards and to ensure that these losses are minimized when the disaster actually strikes. 
  • During-Disaster: It is to ensure that the needs and provisions of victims are met to alleviate and minimize suffering. 
  • After Disaster: After a disaster to achieve rapid and durable recovery which does not reproduce the original vulnerable conditions. 
Pre-disaster Phase: 

Prevention and Mitigation:

Prevention:
  • Action within this segment is designed to impede the occurrence of a disaster event and/or prevent such an occurrence having harmful effects on communities or key installations 
Mitigation:

  1. Mitigation includes all measures taken to reduce both the effects of the hazard itself and the vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster. 
  2. Mitigation also aims at reducing the physical, economic and social vulnerability to threats and the underlying causes for this vulnerability 
  3. Example: some countries regard the development and application of building codes (which can reduce damage and loss in the event of earthquakes and cyclones) as being in the category of mitigation.

Preparedness: 

  • It includes measures that enable governments, communities and individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations to cope with them effectively. 
  • Example: the formulation of viable emergency plans, the development of warning systems etc.
Early Warning: 

  • This is the process of monitoring the situation in communities or areas known to be vulnerable to slow onset hazards, and passing the knowledge of the pending hazard to people.
The Disaster Impact: 

  • This refers to the “real-time event” of a hazard occurring and affecting elements at risk.




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